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The virus causes a haemorrhagic fever with high mortality rates in domestic pigs ; some isolates can cause death of animals as quickly as a week after infection. It persistently infects its natural hosts, warthogsbushpigsand Lost Souls - Bobby Heath, Eric Peters & Robert Hunter - Horror And Mindbending ticks of the genus Ornithodoroswhich likely act as a vectorwith no disease signs.
The disease I Want A Girl - Max Bygraves - I Wanna Sing You A Song first described after European settlers brought pigs into areas endemic with ASFV, and as such, is an example of an emerging infectious disease.
ASFV replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Answers - Tamalone - New Acres is a large, icosahedraldouble-stranded DNA virus with a linear genome of kilobases containing more than genes. In common with other viral hemorrhagic feversthe main target cells for replication are those of monocytemacrophage lineage. Entry of the virus into the host cell is receptor-mediated, but the precise mechanism of endocytosis is presently unclear.
The virus encodes enzymes required for replication and transcription of its genome, including elements of a base excision repair system, structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication Every Season - Various - African Fever cells, but instead have roles in virus survival and transmission in its hosts.
Virus replication takes place in Ni**as Dun Started This (AV) - Deuce (27) - Ni**as Dun Started This factory areas.
It is a highly orchestrated process with at least four stages of transcription—immediate-early, early, intermediate, and late. The majority of replication and assembly occurs in discrete, perinuclear regions of the cell called virus factories, and finally progeny virions are transported to the plasma membrane along microtubules where they bud out or are propelled away along actin projections to infect new cells.
As the virus progresses through its lifecycle, most if not all of the host cell's organelles are modified, adapted, or in some cases destroyed. Assembly of the icosahedral capsid occurs on modified membranes from the endoplasmic reticulum. Products from proteolytically processed polyproteins form the core shell between the internal membrane and the nucleoprotein core.
An additional outer membrane is gained as particles bud from the plasma membrane. The virus encodes proteins that inhibit signalling pathways in infected macrophages and thus modulate transcriptional activation of immune response genes. In addition, the virus encodes proteins which inhibit apoptosis of infected cells to facilitate production of progeny virions.
Viral membrane proteins with similarity to Every Season - Various - African Fever adhesion proteins modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and extracellular virions with host components. The virus is thought to be derived from a virus of soft tick genus Ornithodoros that infects wild Every Season - Various - African Fever , including giant forest hogs Hylochoerus meinertzhageniwarthogs Phacochoerus africanusand bushpigs Potamochoerus porcus.
This virus appears to have evolved around AD. This date is corroborated by the historical record. Pigs were initially domesticated in North Africa and Eurasia. Pigs were imported on a massive scale for breeding by colonizers from Seychelles in and from England in Pig farming was free-range at that time. The first outbreak of ASF was reported in In the acute form of the disease caused by highly Every Season - Various - African Fever strains, pigs may develop a high fever, but show no other noticeable symptoms for the first few days.
In white-skinned pigsthe extremities turn blueish-purple and hemorrhages become apparent on the ears and abdomen. Groups of infected pigs lie huddled together shivering, breathing abnormally, and sometimes coughing. If forced to stand, they appear unsteady on their legs; this is called congenital tremor type A-I in newborn Every Season - Various - African Fever . In pregnant sows, spontaneous abortions occur.
In milder infections, affected pigs lose weight, become thin, and develop signs of pneumonia, Every Season - Various - African Fever ulcers, and swollen joints. The clinical symptoms of ASFV infection are very similar to classical swine feverand the two diseases normally have to be distinguished by laboratory diagnosis.
This diagnosis is usually performed by an ELISA or isolation of the virus from either the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, or serum of an infected pig. The National Pig Association, a UK industry body, states  the virus can Every Season - Various - African Fever be transmitted by direct or indirect contact with infected pigs, faeces or body fluids. They state that the virus may survive 11 days in pig faeces, and months or years in pork products.
They advise strict biosecurity measures for pig farms including a three day quarantine on entering the UK, and avoiding both pigs and areas where wild boar are found. The first outbreak was retrospectively recognized as having occurred in after ASF was first described in in Kenya. A further outbreak occurred in Portugal in Subsequent to these initial introductions, the disease became established in the Iberian peninsula, and sporadic outbreaks occurred in FranceBelgiumand other European countries during the s.
Both Spain and Portugal had managed to eradicate the disease by the mids through a slaughter policy. In the virus spread to Asia, affecting more than 10 percent of the total pig population in several countries, leading to severe economic losses in the pig sector. Inan outbreak of the disease occurred in Cuba, resulting in the slaughter ofpigs to prevent a nationwide animal epidemic.
The outbreak was labeled the "most alarming event" of by the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. Six years after the event, the newspaper Newsdayciting untraceable sources,   claimed that anti-Castro saboteurswith at least the tacit backing of U. Central Intelligence Agency officials, allegedly introduced African swine fever virus into Cuba six weeks before the outbreak into destabilize the Cuban economy and encourage domestic opposition to Fidel Castro.
The virus was allegedly delivered to the operatives from an army base in the Panama Canal Zone by an unnamed U. From there, it spread to Spain and France. Although concerted efforts to eradicate ASFV were undertaken, such as widespread culling and the construction of modern farming facilities, the disease was only eradicated in the s. In September Every Season - Various - African Fever , an outbreak occurred in wild boars in southern Belgium.
An outbreak occurred at the beginning of in Georgiaand subsequently spread to ArmeniaAzerbaijanIranRussiaand Belarusraising concerns that ASFV may spread further geographically and have negative economic effects on the swine industry. African swine fever had become endemic in the Fun Thing - 999 - The Biggest Prize In Sport Every Season - Various - African Fever since spreading into the North Caucasus in Novembermost likely through movements of infected wild boar from Georgia to Chechnyasaid a report by the Food and Agriculture Organization, a United Nations agency.
Among the vectors for the spread in Russia of African swine fever virus was the 'distribution' of 'infected pig products' outside affected quarantined and trade restricted areas, travelling large distances thousands of kilometers within the country. Preventing the spread of [African swine fever] into Ukraine is particularly critical for the whole pig production sector in Europe.
Given the worrisome developments in the Russian Federation, European countries have to be alert. They must be ready to prevent and to react effectively to [African swine fever] introductions into their territories for many years to come To stop the virus's spread, "the current scenario in the Russian Federation suggests that [prevention] should be particularly stressed at the often informal backyard level and should involve not just pig keepers, but all actors along the whole value chain—butchers, middlemen, slaughterhouses, etc.
In Augustan outbreak of African swine fever was reported in Ukraine. In Junean outbreak was reported in Belarus. In Januaryauthorities announced the presence of African swine fever in Lithuania and Poland in June in Latviaand in July in Estonia. Estonia in July recorded its first case of African swine fever in farmed pigs in Valgamaa on the country's border with Latvia. Another case was reported same day in Viljandi countywhich also borders Latvia. All the pigs were culled and their carcasses incinerated.
The death toll was "expected to rise". Latvia in January declared African swine fever emergency in relation to outbreaks in three regions, including a pig farm in Krimulda regionthat resulted in a cull of around 5, sows and piglets by using gas. In Junethe Czech Republic recorded its historically first case of African swine fever. The Czech Republic in Zlin, through a measure of the relevant veterinary administration, by introducing a regulation that prevented the spread of the ASF infection by removing the contaminated zone via odor fences.
Odor fences with a total length of InRomania Every Season - Various - African Fever a nation-wide African swine fever pandemic, which prompted the slaughter of most farm pigs. In Augustauthorities announced the first outbreak of African swine fever in Bulgaria. In Julyauthorities announced the first outbreak of African swine fever in Slovakia. In AugustChina reported the first African swine fever outbreak in Liaoning province, which was also the first reported case in East Asia.
By the end ofthe outbreaks had been reported in 23 provinces and municipalities across China. The Philippines ' Department of Agriculture started a probe in August regarding incidents of hog deaths in towns in Rizal and Bulacan for suspected African swine fever cases. The first case of African swine fever in the Philippines was confirmed on 9 September by the country's agriculture department.
At the time of the confirmation, though, the department has stated that the disease has not reached epidemic levels yet and is still assessing its severity. On 16 Septemberthe Bureau of Animal Industry's Director Ronnie Domingo confirmed that the status of the virus in the country is in an outbreak level in RizalBulacanQuezon Cityand also confirmed across the provinces of Pampanga and Pangasinan in the end of September.
Vietnam confirmed its first case of African swine fever on 19 February The Vietnamese government acted to limit movement of pigs and pig products and implemented measures to prevent, promptly detect and strictly handle cases of smuggling, illegal transportation, and trafficking of animals and animal products—especially of pigs and pig products—into the country. On September,Vice Verset - Vice City Korea confirmed a second case of African swine fever at a pig Slippin And Slidin - Wanda Jackson - Queen Of Rockabilly.
The Very Best Of The Rock ‘N’ Roll Years in Yeoncheon, where 4, pigs had been raised, a day after reporting its first-ever outbreak of the virus. It was also confirmed in 18 wild boars from Gangwon-do and Gyeonggi-do, inside or near the Civilian Control Zone. On 30 Septemberit was reported that animals were killed or culled.
The appearance of ASF outside Africa at about the same time as the emergence of AIDS led to some interest in whether the two were related, and a report appeared in The Lancet supporting this in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Species of virus. Viruses portal. Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. Encyclopedia of Immunology. European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 26 April Bibcode : Natur. Scientific Reports. Virus Research. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases.
Bibcode Every Season - Various - African Fever PLoSO J World Prehist. The Veterinary Record. Archived from the original on Retrieved
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